Urethral Diverticulum

Urethral diverticulum is an uncommon condition of the female urethra, where there is the development of a pouch alonge its course. These are thought to form from an obstructed urethral gland that then forms a cystic swelling, which then re-opens into the urethra but remains as an out-pouching. This can result in urine filling and stagnation, leading to infections, stones, and rarely, cancer in the diverticulum. They usually present has recurring urinary tract infections, but also present with pain or swelling. There are other vaginal masses that can mimic urethral diverticulum and need to be considered. Diagnosis of urethral diverticulum is often made by physical examination, but can be difficult, and may require a combination of tests including cystoscopy, transvaginal ultrasound and/or MRI.


 


Many of these can be left alone if they are asymptomatic and relatively small. However if they are causing symptoms or there is concern of possible pathology, they were surgically removed from a transvaginal approach. Uncommonly, this can lead to urethrovaginal fistula or incontinence.